"descendo" L. descend, come down
Causes something to descend or lower itself.
"dens" L. tooth + "augeo" L. grow
Causes the victim’s teeth to enlarge grotesquely.
no incantation needed; automatic response
A charge like that of electricity runs through the body of a wizard with this automatic defensive spell.
When Vernon Dursley tried to hold Harry around the neck, he felt a sudden charge like electricity running through Harry and he had to drop him. This appears to have been an automatic defensive response on Harry's part, since there is no indication that he intentionally cast a spell (OP1).
Dumbledore used a similar spell to make Umbridge let go of Marietta, whom she was shaking violently. This may be a different form of the spell, however, since Dumbledore used his wand to perform it (OP27).
The following spells are known as curses.
"crucio" L. torment (v.)
One of the “Unforgivable Curses,” this spell causes the victim to suffer almost intolerable pain. Some victims of prolonged use of this curse have been driven insane. A victim of this curse is said to have been Cruciated.
During the Battle of the Department of Mysteries, Bellatrix realized that Neville was the child of the Longbottoms, whom she had tortured. She took fiendish pleasure in using the Cruciatus Curse on the Longbottoms’ son.
no incantation used
A spell that creates objects out of thin air.
There is legislation about what you can conjure and what you can’t (SN).
There are laws of magic (as opposed to human legislation) governing what you can conjure and what you can’t, such as Gamp’s Law of Elemental Transfiguration, to which food is one of the five exceptions (you can’t create food out of nothing) (DH29).
Most things conjured out of thin air will disappear after a couple of hours (SN). Some exceptions to this are the sleeping bags, which survived a lot longer than just a couple of hours, and the leg of Neville's desk, which had been accidentally vanished (CS16) (although this may have been an instance of Reparo instead).
"drawing up a chair" (conjuring a chair out of thin air)
Dumbledore literally drew up a chair for Trelawney to sit in at the Christmas feast in 1993 [Y13] (PA11). He also drew up a chintz armchair for himself to sit in when representing Harry at his hearing before the Wizengamot and when Mrs. Figg arrived to testify, Dumbledore drew up another for her (OP8).
“Dumbledore stood up and asked the students to do the same. Then, with a wave of his wand, all the tables zoomed back along the walls leaving the floor clear, and then he conjured a raised platform into existence along the right wall.” (GF23)
"confundo" L. to mix up, jumble together, confuse, bewilder, perplex
Causes confusion. A person who is affected by this Charm is said to be Confunded.